(1) Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy: A Self- or Norm-Referenced Construct?

Patricia Ashton
University of Florida

Dianne Buhr
University of Florida

Linda Crocker
University of Florida

Abstract: Two approaches to the measurement of teacher efficacy were investigated to determine whether teachers’ sense of efficacy is a self- or a norm-referenced construct. Two forms of an instrument consisting of 25 teaching problem situations were developed: one required self-referenced while the other required norm-referenced responses. The two forms were randomly distributed to 65 classroom teachers enrolled in graduate classes at the University of Florida. In addition, two items measuring teacher efficacy from a Rand Corporation study and the Marlowe-Crowne Scale of Social Desirability were administered. Efficacy appears to be a norm-referenced rather than a self-referenced construct. Social desirability bias was a significant factor in the use of self-referenced vignettes.

Citation: Ashton, P., Buhr, D., & Crocker, L. (1984). Teachers’ sense of efficacy: a self- or norm-referenced construct? Florida Journal of Educational Research, 26(1), 29-41.

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