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(3) Estimating the Effect of Florida’s Low-100 Reading Program: Summarizing Regression Discontinuity Models with Bayesian Model Averaging

Seyfullah Tingir
Cambium Assessment

Russell Almond
Florida State University

Seyma Intepe-Tingir
University of St. Thomas


In 2013, the state of Florida mandated an additional hour of intensive reading instruction for the lowest-performing 100 elementary schools across Florida. This requirement was implemented during the 2013–2014 academic year based on the schools’ ranking in 2012–2013. This study assesses the effectiveness of the extra-hour intervention by using a regression discontinuity design (RDD). Often RDD analyses fit multiple models and then select a single best model using stepwise regression leading to overestimation of the effect size and underestimation of the standard error. This study used the Bayesian model averaging approach, which incorporates uncertainty about the best model. The estimated treatment effect, averaged over the six models and weighted by the models’ posterior probabilities, is 6.1 points (d = .25) with a 95% confidence interval of 5.8 to 6.4 points.


Tingir, S., Almond, R., & Intepe-Tingir, S. (2020).  Estimating the Effect of Florida’s Low-100 Reading Program: Summarizing Regression Discontinuity Models with Bayesian Model Averaging. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 58(3), 1-14.

Download: Tingir.583.pdf (25 downloads)

(2) Moving Beyond Damned if You Do, Damned if You Don’t: Readiness for Change

Kristina N. LaVenia Bowling
Green State University

Laura B. Lang
Florida State University


We know little about the supports principals need to lead change. This lack of knowledge is unfortunate, because principal leadership is understood to be critical for successful school reform. Using a randomized control trial, we tested whether the opportunity to participate in a year-long, content-focused professional development intervention would help principals feel prepared to provide instructional leadership for the transition to new standards. Results suggest professional development was impactful for principals’ self-reported attitudes toward facilitating the implementation of new standards. Study findings offer support for use of professional development as a means of building principals’ ability to lead change efforts.


LaVenia, K.N., Lang, L.B. (2020). Moving beyond damned if you do, damned if you don’t: Readiness for change. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 58(2), 1-21.

Download: LaVenia.582.pdf (32 downloads)

(1) Facilitating Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Professional Development for Novice Teachers in a High-Needs School With a Majority Black Population

Kimberly Miccichi
Pinellas County Schools


In today’s era of resegregation, high-needs schools that are serving mostly students of color and from poverty often hire novice teachers. These teachers are predominantly White, middle-class females who may find it difficult to relate to their students from different races, cultures, and socioeconomic backgrounds. I examined how I could provide four professional development (PD) sessions centered on culturally responsive classroom management (CRCM) for five novice teachers working in a school with a majority Black population qualifying for free and reduced-price lunches. I studied the experiences my teachers had as participants and my facilitation of these sessions to better understand how to help novice teachers develop culturally responsive practices. Three themes emerged that related to CRCM for novice teachers: novice teacher backgrounds, novice teacher classroom challenges, and facilitation–lessons learned. This study has implications for school leaders as well as individuals who (a) design and facilitate PD, (b) lead teacher preparation and induction programs, and (c) study their own practice through action research.


Miccichi, K. (2020). Facilitating culturally responsive classroom management professional development for novice teachers in a high-needs school with a majority Black population. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 58(1), 1-11.

Download: Miccichi_581.pdf (212 downloads)

(4) Examining Alignment of Classification Quality to High-Stakes Test Decisions in Florida

Lissette A. Tolentino
Anne Corinne Huggins-Manley
University of Florida

High-stakes testing in education often requires the use of cut scores to report achievement. In Florida, cut scores are used to establish different levels of proficiency. Although the Florida Standards Assessments (FSA) reports the accuracy rates for cut scores, it does not report classification consistency, nor does it report information on the alignment between the high-stakes cut scores and variations in classification quality across a range of possible cut scores. Our purpose is to perform a case study evaluating the alignment between marginal classification accuracy and consistency rates across the ability continuum to cut point locations for high-stakes cut scores, and to demonstrate the practical utility of this cut score evaluation method that was proposed by Wyse and Babcock (2016). We achieved this purpose through the use of a large set of simulated test data samples generated from FSA item and person parameter estimates.

Tolentino, L. A., & Huggins-Manley, A. C. (2019). Examining Alignment of Classification Quality to High-Stakes Test Decisions in Florida. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 57(4), 1-14.

Download: Tolentino574.pdf (35 downloads)

(3) The Effect of a Statewide School Voucher Program on School Enrollment Change Using Difference-in-Differences Methods

Hyun-Ki Shim
Florida State University

This study examines the impact of the Florida Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP), a school-based voucher program, on change in total enrollment and share of disadvantaged students by measuring the effect on timing of treatment: immediate effect, lagged effect, and cumulative effect. By collecting school- and district-level time-varying controls from the Census, Common Core of Data, and Florida Department of Education, this study constructed a panel dataset consisting of 1,945 Florida public elementary schools across 67 districts, spanning 2011 through 2016. In general, this study found a negative impact on total school enrollment change, but positive change on free-reduced lunch (FRL) share in enrollment. The negative effect of OSP was only significant within one more year when additional time indicators were included in the analysis. On the other hand, the FRL share shows no significant change from the immediate and lagged effects. All in all, OSP eligibility has a negative impact on total enrollment change which implies that underperforming schools experienced greater student displacement than other schools.

Shim, H-K. (2019). The Effect of a Statewide School Voucher Program on School Enrollment Change Using Difference-in-Differences Methods. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 57(3), 1-22.

Download: Shim.573.pdf (41 downloads)