Journal Current

(1) Problems and Issues in Contemporary Evaluation with Emphasis on Systems or Programs Such as Teacher Education

Leonard S. Cahen
Educational Testing Service

Abstract: The 1960s have been marked by major changes in education. These changes have included major social and curriculum innovations. Accompanying these innovations, we have observed a rebirth in the philosophy and technology of evaluation. The paper covers some general evaluation issues and questions including the relationship of evaluation and educational research. A plea is made for two stage evaluations of programs or systems such as teacher education. The first step includes the evaluation of the specific program to bring about changes in teacher behavior. The second stage looks at the effects of the change behaviors of teachers on pupils and the school environment.

Citation: Cahen, L. S. (1971). Problems and issues in contemporary evaluation with emphasis on systems or programs such as teacher education. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 154-170.

Download:  Cahen.131.pdf (614 downloads)

(2) Evaluation of the Academic Achievement of Sixth Grade Pupils in a Bilingual Educational Program

Beulah Cypress
University of Florida

Abstract: In 1963 Dade County established a bilingual curriculum in an elementary school. Among other goals was attainment of equal proficiency in reading in Spanish and English. Results of language and achievement testing show that while many of the goals were achieved the proficiency in English as a second language excelled that for Spanish as a second language.

Citation: Cypress, B. (1971). Evaluation of the academic achievement of sixth grade pupils in a bilingual education program. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 23-35.

Download:  Cypress.131.pdf (563 downloads)

(3) Interpreting and Using Standardized Tests in the 70’s a View from One Man’s Mountaintop

Walter N. Durost
University of New Hampshire

Citation: Durost, W. N. (1971). Interpreting and using standardized tests in the 70’s a view from one man’s mountaintop. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 123-153.

Download:  Durost.131.pdf (485 downloads)

(4) Comparison of Three Matching Item Formats

John Follman
University of South Florida

Raymond Urbanke
University of South Florida

Wade Burley
University of South Florida

Abstract: Three matching item test formats were compared empirically. The random order test format produced performance significantly superior to both the homogeneity of meaning test format and the one overall group test format. It was concluded: that the format of matching tests influences performance; that random ordering of matching items produces highest performance; that instructors should determine that both they and their students have denotative knowledge of the meaning of the so-called key words used in essay questions; and that matching assignments should not involve too large a number of stimuli and responses.

Citation: Follman, J., Urbanke, R., & Burley, W. (1971). Comparison of three matching item formats. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 39-48.

Download:  Follman.131.pdf (659 downloads)


(5) Prior Matriculation, Specific Academic Experience, and Pre- and Post-Performance on an Educational Psychology Test

Newell T. Gill
Florida Atlantic University

Abstract: Students entering the educational psychology course sequence for teacher education at Florida Atlantic University are examined. Previous educational and pre-post course test scores were analyzed. Differences were encountered.

Citation: Gill, N. T. (1971). Prior matriculation, specific academic experience, and pre- and post-performance on an educational psychology test. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 58-64.

Download:  Gill.131.pdf (913 downloads)

(6) Student Writing Interests and Teacher Expectation

Newell T. Gill
Florida Atlantic University

David Geneivive
Florida Atlantic University

Abstract: This study explores student writing interests and the accuracy with Which teachers perceive those interests. Ninth grade student~, grouped by sex and ability selected and rated theme topics. Selected topics were then rateed by teachers in accordance with their perceptions of the average student. Data interpretation involved factor analyses by sex for the average ability group and analyses of variance for investigating difference.s. by sex between: 1) teachers and students of average ability; and 2) student ability levels.

Topics selected were relatively independent and differed somewhat by sex. Teachers were less effective judges of the writing interests of students of their own sex. Sex and ability grouping significantly contributed to variance In writing interests. Results should interest teachers involved with this age group.

Citation: Gill, N. T., & Geneivive, D. (1971). Student writing interests and teacher expectation. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 65-91.

Download:  Gill1.131.pdf (693 downloads)

(7) Transposed Factor Analysis as a means of Typing Educational Philosophies Across Cultures

Wilson H. Guertin
University of Florida

Abdallah Omar Naser
University of Jordan

Abstract: Female teachers indicated degree of agreement with 83 philosophy of education items. The 25 Jordanian Arab and Florida Americans were intercorrelated to disclose similarity of responding. The resulting intercorrelation matrix with communality estimates in the diagonal was factor analyzed. The Varimax rotated factor matrix revealed three type-factors; a major American factor, a major Arab, and a minor Arab factor. A profile of contrasting differences between the two major types is given. Only one of the 50 subjects could not be identified from loadings on the two major type-factors. National stereotypes may be useful and the view of Westerns and non-Westerns as “brothers” seems to have a better basis in humanism than in science.

Citation: Guertin, W. H., & Naser, A. O. (1971). Transposed factor analysis as a means of typing educational philosophies across cultures. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 106-111.

Download:  Guertin.131.pdf (911 downloads)

(8) Current Problems and Issues in Evaluation

R. Emile Jester
University of Florida

Citation: Jester, R. E. (1971). Current problems and issues in evaluation. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 171-174.

Download:  Jester.131.pdf (923 downloads)

(9) Comparison of Two School Ratings on the Florida Atlantic Speech Test

Jack H. Knowles
Florida Atlantic University

F. Ward Brunson
Florida Atlantic University

Willard H. Nelson
Florida Atlantic University

Citation: Knowles, J. H., Brunson, F. W., & Nelson, W. H. (1971). Comparison of two school ratings on the Florida Atlantic speech test. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 36-38.

Download:  Knowles.131.pdf (972 downloads)


(10) Cost-Utility Studies: A Means Toward Public Accountability for Educational Expenditures

Richard H. P. Kraft
Florida State University

Henry F. Raichle
Pinellas County Schools
Clearwater, Florida

Abstract: Cost-utility analysis can be defined as the process by which costs and certain benefits associated with program outputs are related and studied by the decision-maker in the determination of priorities and the allocation of resources. Most of the educational cost-utility work in the past has been concentrated upon the costs of education. The main problem area, however, is the obtaining of adequate, quantifiable data on facets of education other than costs.

In view of increasing student enrollments, increasing demands by employers tor their occupational skills, and the necessity of allocating scarce educational resources, several important questions can be raised.

1. Do the existing vocational-technical education programs provide positive cost-utility relations?

2. Can a cost-effectiveness analysis be used to develop optimum utilization models in terms of human resources (staff) and facilities?

3. Can a cost-utility analysis be an effective technique for educational plan- ners at local school system level to develop a Planning, Programming, Budget System?

If educational resources were unlimited, the necessity for careful evaluation and planning of programs in order to assure optimal allocation of resources would be non-existent. However, educational resources are scarce and require a high degree of accurate cost and utility estimation as decisions regarding the expendi- ture of these scarce resourcesare made.

This study used data from a representative vocational-technical education program (electronics technology) collected at a vocational-technical education center located in a large Urban FlorIda county. There are four main phases developed by this cost-utility study.

The first phase identified direct and indirect costs related to the electronics technology program. Algorithms were developed for the retrieval and assign- ments of program costs from actual expenditure records.

The second phase established criteria for determining marginal program utility in terms of marginal income increases for individual graduates of the pro- gram and marginal tax increases received by society as a result of the income gain of program graduates.

The third phase related the public and private costs to their respective utility values In terms of marginal monetary return on investment.

Finally, a cost-utility planning model was developed for use as a conceptual model for Implementing a Planning, Programming, Budgeting System. The cost-utility model is presented as being essential to the concept of PPBS – that of designing programs in terms of optimizing human and monetary resources to achieve short and long-range objectives.

Citation: Kraft, R. H. P., & Raichle, H. F. (1971). Cost-utility studies: a means toward public accountability for educational expenditures. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 92-105.

Download:  Kraft.131.pdf (815 downloads)

(11) Teacher Evaluation Program Based on Students’ Ratings: The Effects of Students’ Grades

Guillermo F. Mascaro
University of Florida

Enrique Alba
University of Florida

Abstract: This investigation tested the effects of exam grades received by students on the students’ evaluations of their professors. In accord with predictions based on reinforcement and on adaptation-level theory, it was found that changes In evaluative ratings given by students to a teacher were significantly related to the students’ “obtained grades” and to the students’ “relative grades” (i.e., ratio of obtained grade to expected grade).

Citation: Mascaro, G. F., & Alba, E. (1971). Teacher evaluation program based on students’ ratings: the effects of students’ grades. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 116-118.

Download:  Mascaro.131.pdf (897 downloads)

(12) F. A. C. T. – Flexible Analysis of Classroom Techniques

Willard H. Nelson
Florida Atlantic University

Ronald A. Newell
Florida Atlantic University

F. Ward Brunson
Florida Atlantic University

Citation: Nelson, W. H., Newell, R. A., & Brunson, F. W. (1971). F. A. C. T. – flexible analysis of classroom techniques. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 112-115.

Download:  Nelson.131.pdf (1109 downloads)

(13) Age Differences and Dishonesty in High School

Fred Schab
University of Georgia

Abstract: 1629 northeast Georgia adolescents, ages,13 thru 17+, attending 22 high schools, responded, anonymously, to Questions asking about the cheating being practiced in their schools, their own projected and admitted deceitful behavior in certain educational situations, and their beliefs about effects of school deceit on contemporary society.

Chi-square applied to the responses revealed many significant differences between the responses of the five age groups studied.

Age differences were found in the following areas: (1) estimates of the amount of on-going cheating, (2) opinions about which courses are cheated in most, (3) how and by whom cheaters should be punished, (4) willingness to “squeal” on cheaters, (5) cheating or giving help on tests and other tasks, (6) deceiving teachers and administrators in various ways (sometimes with the connivance of parents), and (7) the carryover of deceit from school to job, college, home, and its prevalence in contemporary society.

Citation: Schab, F. (1971). Age differences and dishonesty in high school. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 3-13.

Download:  Schab.131.pdf (857 downloads)

(14) Characteristics and Attitudes of College Students in Relation to Marijuana

Stephen S. Sledjesky
Santa Fe Junior College

Wilson H. Guertin
University of Florida

Abstract: The dual purpose of this study was (1) to examine attitudes of college students in relation to marijuana to discover interrelations of opinions regarding its use, and (2) to determine differences between smokers of marijuana and non- smokers on demographic data, Factor analysis-and item tallies were used, respectively, in analyzing the degree of agreement with opinion items on a Questionnaire designed by the senior author. The demographic data suggested few differences between smokers of marijuana and nan-smokers of marijuana an the eight categories investigated. The differences that were found were in the categories of cigarette smoking and planned major field of study. Regarding the factor analysis of attitudes, nine factors were farmed which expressed varied degrees of knowledge and acceptance of marijuana plus caution at its use and society’s erroneous interpretation of its effects.

Citation: Sledjesky, S. S., & Guertin, W. H. (1971). Characteristics and attitudes of college students in relation to marijuana. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 14-22.

Download:  Sledjesky.131.pdf (956 downloads)

(15) Common Dimensions of the School, Social, and Economic Environment in Florida: an Empirical Study

Robert S. Stephenson
Florida State University

Jacob G. Beard
Florida State University

Abstract: Forty-six variables descriptive of the 67 Florida School systems and their coterminous counties were subjected to a principal axis factor analysis. Seven interpretable factors were extracted.

Two of the seven factors were school factors and tentatively labeled “School Holding Power” and “Expenditure Per Pupil.” Two other factors were determined by cultural attributes of the community and labeled “Social and Economic Stratification” and “Minority Group.” Three additional community factors were labeled: “Growth Rate,” “Community Size,” and “Local School Support.”

The two output variables, “County Achievement Mean” and “Percent Attend- ing College,” loaded appreciably on only three of the factors: “Social and Economic Stratification,” “School Holding Power,” and “Minority Group.”

Approximately one third of the systematic variance in achievement means was unrelated to the variables used in this study.

Citation: Stephonson, R. S., & Beard, J. G. (1971). Common dimensions of the school social, and economic environment in Florida: and empirical study. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 49-57.

Download:  Stephenson.131.pdf (1065 downloads)

(16) Reflections on Research

Thomas S. Tocco
University of South Florida

Citation: Tocco, T. S. (1971). Reflections on research. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 175-176.

Download:  Tocco.131.pdf (1084 downloads)