Journal Current

(1) Heart Rate as a Measure of Reading Involvement

Michael Angelotti
Florida State University

Ralph R. Behnke
Florida State University

Larry W. Carlile
Florida State University

Abstract: Using telemetry, heart rates were measured on 20 male seventh graders during the reading of two selections, a science fiction story and a selection from a history book. Heart rates during the science fiction selection were significantly lower than during the historical selection. Further, the mean heart rates changed significantly during different parts of each story.

Citation: Angelotti, M., Behnke, R. R., & Carlile, L. W. (1973). Heart rate as a measure of reading involvement. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 15(1), 3-9.

Download:  Angelotti.151.pdf (107 downloads)


(2) Generosity in Essay Grading

John Follman
University of South Florida

Robert Reilly
University of Arkansas

Abstract: The generosity error in grading essay test responses is the bias of assigning too high a grade category. This bias should be reduced by manipulating the nature of the grading categories used.

Fifteen teachers graded 12 themes. The 15 teachers were randomly assigned, five each, to one of three types of rating category procedures. The three procedures were: Conventional (two positive, one neutral, two negative categories); Generosity (three positive, one neutral, one negative category); and Number (5, 4, 3, 2, 1). As expected, the conventional five categories produced a higher score than did the unbalanced five categories recommended by Guilford for offsetting the generosity error.

Citation: Follman, J., & Reilly, R. (1973). Generosity in essay grading. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 15(1), 79-82.

Download:  Follman.151-1.pdf (117 downloads)

(3) Visual Self-Confrontation and the Self-Concept of the Exceptional Child

Newell T. Gill
Florida Atlantic University

Robert Messina
Florida Atlantic University

Abstract: This pilot study explored methods and effects of extending a child’s self-awareness. Eighty children from an exceptional education center were given visual self-confrontation experiences for seven months via photography, mirrors, films and video tape playbacks. A comparison of pre-post test results showed an improvement in recognition of self and other self-concept related variables.

Citation: Gill, N. T., & Messina, R. (1973). Visual self-confrontation and the self-concept of the exceptional child. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 15(1), 18-36.

Download:  Gill.151.pdf (115 downloads)

(4) A Cross-Sectional Study of Intelligence and Achievement in a Seminold Indian Reservation School

H. R. Greene
Florida Atlantic University
Boca Raton, Florida

H. A. Kersey
Florida Atlantic University
Boca Raton, Florida

T. D. Prutsman
Florida Atlantic University
Boca Raton, Florida

Abstract: The entire population of Seminole Indian children at the Big Cypress Reservation school, deep in the Everglades, was administered the Wide Range Achievement Test, the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices, the Draw-a-Person Test, the Bender-Gestalt Test, and speech and hearing examinations. Median achievement in reading, spelling and arithmetic was found to be over one standard deviation below national norms. The older children showed a more serious deficit than the younger group when each group was compared with its respective age norms for reading and spelling, although raw scores on intelligence tests increased steadily with age but remained consistently below norm group medians. The verbal achievement deficit among the older children was attributed to educational and to cultural factors.

Citation: Greene, H. R., Kersey, H. A., & Prutsman, T. D. (1973). A cross-sectional study of intelligence and achievement in a Seminole Indian reservation school. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 15(1), 37-45.

Download:  Greene.151.pdf (122 downloads)

(5) Identifying Non-Cognitive Gains with the MAGS: A Validation Study

Wilson H. Guertin
University of Florida

Thomas J. Moffett
Orange County Schools (Fla.)

Abstract: An instrument to identify gains in academically-important non-cognitive areas demonstrated the value of a compensatory elementary education program.

Citation: Guertin, W. H., & Moffett, T. J. (1973). Identifying non-cognitive gains with the MAGS: a validation study. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 15(1), 53-56.

Download:  Guertin.151.pdf (120 downloads)


(6) The Effect of Spurious Heterogeneity Upon Correlation

Wilson H. Guertin
University of Florida

William M. Fox
University of Florida

Abstract: A shift in the calculated r from .72 to -.18 is illustrated for a problem with N = 50 when the error on a punched card is corrected.

Citation: Guertin, W. H., & Fox, W. M. (1973). The effect of spurious heterogeneity upon correlation. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 15(1), 90-91.

Download:  Guertin2.151.pdf (110 downloads)

(7) A Study of Negro and White Low Socio-Economic Class Children on the Variables of Race, Sex and Kindergarten Attendance and on General Social Adjustment

Walter J. Musgrove
University of South Florida
St. Petersburg Campus

Mary G. Whitesides
Board of Public Instruction
Polk County, Florida

Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the academic achievement of low socio-economic class Negro and white children on several variables. A control group without kindergarten experiences was established which was matched with the experirnental group to ascertain if the kindergarten program was a significant factor in the children’s achievement. Analysis of variance was employed to determine the main effects and interactions among race, sex, and kindergarten attendance. Teacher ratings were obtained on each student to evaluate in-school social adjustment and chi square was utilized to locate significant differences among the groups. The results showed the greatest differences in academic achievement could be traced to sex differences, but difference also appeared in specific language areas with race and kindergarten attendance interaction.

Citation: Musgrove, W. J., & Whitesides, M. G. (1973). A study of negro and white low socio-economic class children on the variables of race, sex and kindergarten attendance and on general social adjustment. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 15(1), 10-17.

Download:  Musgrove.151.pdf (134 downloads)

(8) An Evaluation of the Satisfactory-Unsatisfactory Grading Option at Florida State University

Rick Nations
Sarasota Board of Public Instruction

Abstract: Fifty-two users and 52 non-users of the undergraduate pass-fail option at Florida State University were interviewed. A variety of reasons were given for electing the pass-fail option. These are discussed. The overall evidence is favorable for continued use of the option.

Citation: Nations, R. (1973). An evaluation of the satisfactory-unsatisfactory grading option at Florida state university. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 15(1), 69-78.

Download:  Nations.151.pdf (137 downloads)

(9) Characteristics of Students Enrolled in Florida Post High School Occupational Education Programs

John M. Nickens
University of Florida

James L. Wattenbarger
University of Florida

Abstract: In order to study the characteristics of Florida’s Area Vocational Center (AVC) students. the Career Planning Profile (CPP) was administered to 1625 students at centers early in the fall term, 1970. A follow-up questionnaire was administered late in the spring term, 1971.

Analysis of responses showed the mean scores attained by
Florida AVC students to be lower than the national sample on the ability test of the CPP, and on female self-reported high school grade point averages; AVC students and the national sample were similar in self-estimate of skills and ability scores by educational program, AVC students exceeded national norms for non-academic competency and male self-reported high school grade point average.

Citation: Nickens, J. M., & Wattenbarger, J. L. (1973). Characteristics of students enrolled in Florida post high school occupational education programs. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 15(1), 57-68.

Download:  Nickens.151.pdf (131 downloads)

(10) Intradimensional Validity and Interdimensional Compatibility as they Relate to Multidimensionality

A. Edward Uprichard
University of South Florida

Abstract: The recent proliferation of classroom observational systems creates a potential problem for educational researchers. For example, “how is a researcher to know if he has chosen an efficient system or systems for use in a particular design?” This paper assumes the position that to realize the greatest payoff when applying observational techniques certain conditions pertaining to the validity and scope of each system must be considered and met.

A multi-instrument approach, which is defined as the simultaneous use of more than one observational system, may best be served by utilizing only systems having “content,” “differential,” and “intradimensional (construct)” validity. In contrast, a multi-dimensional approach to be effective, must not only be concerned with the validity of the multidimensional system or unidimensional systems employed, but also with “interdimensionaI” compatibility. Unless these conditions are met, there may be serious questions regarding the degree of confidence that can be placed in the yielded data as well as the subsequent findings in studies using observational techniques.

Citation: Uprichard, A. E. (1973). Intradimensional validity and interdimensional compatibility as they relate to multidimensionality. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 15(1), 85-89.

Download:  Uprichard.151.pdf (145 downloads)

(11) Pupil Evaluations of Teacher Messages in Three Channels of Communication

Hannelore Wass
University of Florida

Abstract: This study explored pupils’ perception and integration of multi- channel information contained in teacher-to-pupil communications. A set of videotaped scenes was produced in which three female elementary teachers enacted messages with varied positive (praising, friendly), neutral (without valuative content), and negative (blaming, unfriendly) connotations in three channels of communication: verbal (content), vocal (tone of voice), and visual (facial expression. smile or frown). Three hundred seven elementary pupils in grades three to six were asked to rate these messages as either “Good,” “Bad,” or “Not Good – Not Bad.” Results indicate that the verbal channel has the strongest impact, determining 80 per cent of the pupils’ over-all evaluation of a teacher’s message. Differences between grades were found. showing decreasing influence of the verbal channel with advancing grades. Negative verbal messages are perceived with similar strength at all four grade levels. Non-verbal messages tend to strengthen or weaken verbal messages. When the verbal channel carries neutral messages more children in lower grades than in upper grades turn to non-verbal channels for valuative clues.

Citation: Wass, H. (1973). Pupil evaluations of teacher messages in three channels of communication. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 15(1), 46-52.

Download:  Wass.151.pdf (131 downloads)